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Why are schools closing in Costa Rica (and what does that say about the best educational system in Central America)


During the last decade in the Central American country, an average of nine primary schools have been closed per year due to lack of students. But is it bad or good news?

In Costa Rica, the country with the best educational system in Central America, schools are closing: on average, nine primary education centers a year so far this decade.

It is not, however, due to lack of teachers or resources: what more and more Tico schools lack are students.

Indeed, in the last 10 years the budget of the Ministry of Public Education (MEP) of Costa Rica has doubled and is currently equivalent to 7.4% of GDP.

Its about Highest average among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries (OECD), “The club of the most developed countries in the world” to which the Central American country is about to join.

But the fall in the birth rate has been reducing the number of school-age children, and with them the number of those who attend school.

In this year’s school year, for example, 21,288 fewer children were enrolled in Costa Rican primary schools than in 2010 and almost 70,000 less than in the first year of the century.

And according to a recent audit report cited by the Costa Rican newspaper The nation, The trend has already forced the closure of 92 public schools between 2010 and 2019, and the MEP plans to close four more this year.

Another 30 public schools have a single student and 616 schools have less than 10 students.

AFP
As fewer and fewer children are being born in Costa Rica, there are fewer and fewer students.

“An open school will always be maintained where there is a student,” promises Guiselle Cruz, the Costa Rican Minister of Education.

“But we know that by the low birth rate there is a significant percentage of schools that in the next five, 10 years are going to have almost no students ”, he confirms to BBC Mundo.

Universal coverage

The situation could not contrast more with that of the rest of Central American countries, where what is lacking are schools.

And, as Minister Cruz highlights, it is largely the result of efforts to guarantee universal educational coverage that Costa Rica has been doing since the 1960s.

School in a rural area of ​​Costa Rica

Getty Images
The vast majority of schools that have closed have done so in rural areas with difficult access.

In fact, the vast majority of schools closed or with few students are located in rural areas, difficult to access.

“They are mountainous areas, areas through which a river passes. So, the idea was, instead of making the little ones cross the river to go to another school, to make one for them in their community ”, explains Daniela Cerdas, from the newspaper The nation.

“But they were not made to have only one student. They are small schools that with the drop in the birth rate are falling to zero, “he tells BBC Mundo.

For Cerdas, the most significant thing about the story is that “it shows that there are schools in every corner of the country so as not to deny children the right to education.”

But the journalist also acknowledges that “the problem with so many small schools is that the quality of education is not the same for everyone“.

And the same says Katherine Barquero, principal investigator of the chapter on primary education of the most recent State of Education Report (IEE), which highlights the large percentage of “single-teacher” schools that still exist in Costa Rica.

Quantity vs quality

As their name indicates, the “single-teacher” schools -which in Costa Rica can have up to 30 students- are centers where a single teacher teaches all the subjects, at all the cycles.

And according to the seventh State of Education Report, published last year, three out of 10 Costa Rican primary schools belong to this category.

Costa Rican teacher and students

AFP
In many Costa Rican elementary schools, a single teacher has to attend to all the students.

“Single-teacher schools exist out of the need to give primary education to all and achieve that achievement, of which we are very proud, to have a very high schooling rate in our population ”, explains Barquero.

“But their students are unequal: they have access to primary education, but the quality is different (from schools with more students and teachers),” he tells BBC Mundo.

In fact, according to figures from the World Bank, with a 97% net enrollment rate in primary, Costa Rica is one of the undisputed educational leaders in Latin America, where it is only behind Uruguay and Cuba and far ahead of neighbors such as Honduras (80%), El Salvador (81%) and Guatemala (87%).

But the Central American country is still below the average of the countries of the OECD in the tests of the Program for International Student Assessment (known as PISA tests, which assess the level of comprehension in math, science and reading.

And the latest edition of the IEE also records a significant drop in the net primary school enrollment rate, which currently stands at 93.1%.

According to Barquero, this reduction can be explained by three factors: a problem of internal efficiency of the system, expressed in more students repeating grade; a recent change in the calculation methodology used by the MEP, or as an effect of the demographic transition.

“But the important thing is that we thought it was very tall and it has been deteriorating. That is the problem, that we have been experiencing deterioration ”, the researcher tells BBC Mundo.

Camslow bio

For Barquero, the situation also makes it increasingly clear that the structure of primary schools in Costa Rica “is obsolete“.

But the researcher also recognizes that it has also been slowly changing.

Costa Rican schoolboy

AFP
The number of single teacher schools has also been declining.

In 2008, for example, single-teacher elementary schools represented 49.9% of the total and currently constitute 33.4%.

And according to Minister Cruz, the current government has a plan that would allow “Bundle” many of today’s small schools in larger centers, thus offering better conditions to students.

“The idea is that the educational center that has the best conditions brings together neighboring educational centers and provides transportation to students, scholarship possibilities, etc.”, he explains.

“This would allow us Improve the quality of education, because in these schools with less than 30 students it is very difficult for them to have the chance to (learn) a second language, the issue of connectivity and technology are another limitation, socialization is very little… ”, he tells BBC Mundo .

According to the official, after analyzing the geographical conditions, the road infrastructure and the facilities of numerous schools located in areas of no more than five kilometers, the MEP has identified “More than 500 schools that could regroup”.

And Cruz hopes to conclude the necessary consultations and negotiations with residents and unions before the end of President Carlos Alvarado’s term.

Pencil

AFP
The grouping of small schools would improve the learning conditions of many students.

“We have to move carefully, because many of our schools, not to tell you that most, have been a labor of love for the community and are very important to them,” explains the minister.

“But we also have to make everyone – society, teachers, politicians – understand that a reduction in the number of schools does not have to mean fewer teachers,” he stresses.

And he adds: “What I see is a great opportunity for quality improvement (of education), because we know that the reduction of groups and individualized attention makes a difference ”.

More challenges

The future of small schools, in any case, it is not the only challenge that must be saved to achieve the leap in quality that Costa Rica aspires to.

According to Katherine Barquero, the vast majority of public schools in the country, 93%, still “do not offer the complete curriculum.”

And for years, the State of Education Report has also noted problems in the process of training and incorporation of teachers.

It is something that the current authorities are trying to solve with an update of the recruitment profiles and the institution of a suitability test.

Costa Rican schoolchildren

AFP
In Costa Rican schools, in addition to education, students have guaranteed food.

Minister Cruz also told BBC Mundo that a bill that would institutionalize a evaluation and monitoring system of the teachers of the country’s public education system.

Meanwhile, the MEP is also making efforts to significantly improve the connectivity of its educational centers, to help compensate for the limits and inequalities in internet access that the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed.

“Of the one hundred thousand students in Costa Rica, we have half with good or medium connection possibilities and with devices, and the other half of the students no connectividad, although some have devices, “Minister Cruz tells BBC Mundo.

Costa Rican schoolchildren

AFP
There are also deep inequalities in access to technology.

This poses a challenge for an education system that, however, has made significant progress in terms of long distance education spurred on by the pandemic.

In fact, for Daniela Cerdas, this could and should be the alternative for those students from remote and hard-to-reach areas where the school grouping project is not viable.

“This unifying schools would be a bit complicated if, for example, a river passes in the middle of the communities, because that can put the student at risk“Values ​​Cerdas.

“But instead of investing in an entire infrastructure that perhaps does not have all the conditions, it is better to invest in giving the student the technological tool, the internet, and that education is given at a distance,” he tells BBC Mundo.

The journalist, however, also recognizes the economic difficulties through which the country crosses.

“Finances were already depressed and with the pandemic they got worse,” he says.

But I know that the country will not leave any student without an education, wherever I live. That I know is something that the country guarantees ”, she concludes.


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