Illiteracy: a lag that persists; Southeastern states, the most affected
Every September 8, the United Nations Organization commemorates International Literacy Day, so that the States that are part of the organization do not give up their efforts to eradicate illiteracy; a dimension of educational backwardness linked to the conditions of poverty, marginalization and social backwardness in which millions of people live around the world.
This 2020, the approach with which this day is proposed is: Teaching of literacy and learning during and after the crisis of covid-19, with the purpose that the pandemic does not deepen the previously existing inequalities among those who have education formal education and those who have not had access to it.
The magnitude of the problem in Mexico
Illiteracy in Mexico is defined as the inability of people over 15 years of age to read and write a message. It is an indicator in which, despite progressive reductions, progress continues to be slow and uneven throughout the national territory.
Indeed, according to the estimates of the National Institute of Statistics and Geography, based on the Intercensal Survey, 2015, in that year there were 88.15 million people aged 15 years and over in the country in the country; Of these, 4.44 million were considered illiterate, that is, 5% of the population in the indicated age group.
In that year, the entities with the worst indicator were: Chiapas, with 14.3% illiterate people; Guerrero with 12.5% and Oaxaca, with 12.3% of the population in the indicated age group. In contrast, the three entities with the lowest illiteracy presence were, in that year: Mexico City, with 1.4%; Nuevo León, 1.5%, and Baja California, with 1.8%.
Progress, as mentioned, has been slow, because as of December 31, 2019, estimates from the National Institute for Adult Education (INEA) show that, of the 93.31 million people over 15 years of age who would be in the In the country, 3.59 million would be illiterate, that is, 3.8% of the people in the indicated age group.
Regional inequalities persist: in Chiapas, which continues to be the state with the worst results, illiteracy is 13%; in Oaxaca it is 10%; and in Guerrero it is 9.8%; in contrast, in Mexico City the percentage is 0.9%; in Nuevo León it is 1%; and in Baja California of 1.1 percent.
Another relevant indicator in this matter is that of the population over 15 years of age that has not completed primary school; Thus, at the end of 2019, the INEA estimated that there were 8.9 million people in the age group with this characteristic, that is, 9.5% of the 93.31 million people over 15 years of age in the country.
In this indicator, Michoacán is the entity with the worst indicator, with 14.6% of the total of its inhabitants over 15 years of age with this characteristic; Veracruz is the second worst in the country, with 15%; the third is Oaxaca, with 14.3%; followed by Guerrero, with 13.4%; and Chiapas, with 13%. The entities with the highest achievement are: Coahuila, with 4.2%; Mexico City, with 4.9% and Nuevo León, with 5.6 percent.
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